- Lighting: high key/low key
- Production design
- Body movement/gestures
- Camera proxemics
- Colour: dominance/symbolism
- Diegetic (meant to be in the scene eg. dialogue)
- Non-diegetic (not meant to be in the scene eg. soundtrack)
- Transitions: rapid cut, fade in/out, dissolve, cutting on the action, action match, eyeline match, intercutting
- 180 degrees rule
- Rule of thirds
- Shots: extreme long, long, full, close-up, medium, extreme close-up, wide, weather.
- Angles: bird's eye view, high angle, eye level shot, low angel, oblique angle, over the shoulder shot, point of view.
- Camera movement: pan, tilt, dolly or track, crane, steadicam, hand-held, zoom in, reverse zoom, snorricam, zolly (dolly and zoom - zooming in at the same rate as a dolly moving away).
- Shot/Reverse shot.
- Ferdinand de Saussure - semiotics (signs and signification)
- Noam Chomsky - Manufacturing Consent/filters
- Jenny Morris - disability representation (writers use disability to provoke empathy from a viewer, and also use it to define the character).
- Roland Barthes - mythologies
- Claude Levi Strauss - binary oppositions
- Stewart Hall - representation.
- Jack Sheehan - Reel Bad Arabs
- Verisimilitude - the level of realism a piece has.
- Karen Ross - disabled people want more respect in the media.